Methods for the measurement of blood pressure by doctors and patients
The arterial pressure measured in the doctor’s office is called office blood pressure (BP), while at home — home blood pressure. When the patient independently measures BP at home, it’s called self-monitoring of blood pressure. When blood pressure is measured during the day with a special portable device — ambulatory, or 24-hour, blood pressure monitoring. The auscultatory method is the official standard of non-invasive BP determination for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension. In addition, it is used for non-invasive verification of automatic blood pressure monitors. Today, oscillometric instruments account for more than 80 % of all automatic and semiautomatic devices for home measurement of blood pressure. Among the modern professional devices for ambulatory measurement and monitoring of blood pressure, oscillometric devices account for about half, up to 25 % — auscultatory devices, and 25 % — combined ones. Mercury sphygmomanometer remains the simplest manual device for measuring blood pressure. The accuracy of the method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement by Riva-Rocci and Korotkov was proved with the use of mercury sphygmomanometers. The prohibition of mercury in many countries contributed to the development and dissemination of semi- and fully automa-tic instruments for measuring blood pressure by the method of oscillometry. The blood pressure is measured twice with an interval of 2–3 minutes and the average figure from two measurements is fixed. If the difference between the results is more than 5 mmHg, then it is necessary to measure BP again.
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