Nutrients and Nutraceuticals for the Management of High Normal Blood Pressure: An Evidence‑Based Consensus Document

Arrigo F.G. Cicero, Davide Grassi, Giuliano Tocci, Ferruccio Galletti, Claudio Borghi, Claudio Ferri


Essential hypertension still represents the most common cardiovascular risk factor, which is responsible for the vast majority of global burden of disease, worldwide. Antihypertensive treatment aimed at lowering blood pressure (BP) levels to the recommended therapeutic targets has demonstrated to reduce risk of developing major cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. Despite these evidence, overall rates of BP control are dramatically low in most European and Western countries, as well as in the so called developing countries, thus contributing to the increasingly amount of hypertension-related costs and disabilities. For these reasons, preventive strategies aimed at improving BP control rates in treated hypertensive patients and reducing high-normal BP levels in asymptomatic otherwise healthy individuals may contribute to reduce the burden of disease related to hypertension. In this view, an extensive use of nutrients and nutraceuticals has demonstrated to provide favorable effects in hypertension management and control, beyond the adoption of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions can effectively and safely reduce BP levels to targets and prevent disease progression form high-normal BP levels towards stage 1 hypertension. The present consensus document will systematically describe and critically analyze the currently available evidence in favor of the use of nutrients and nutraceuticals in those individuals with high-normal BP levels at different cardiovascular risk profile.


hypertension; high blood pressure; nutraceuticals; nutrients; cardiovascular prevention

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